The Testament of Solomon
translated by F. C. Conybeare
This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 1997.
All rights reserved.
This text is an Old Testament Pseudepigraphic catalog of demons summoned
by King Solomon, and how they can be countered by invoking angels and
other magical techniques.
It is one of the oldest magical texts attributed to King Solomon, dating First to
Third Century A.D.
Translation is by F. C. Conybeare, Jewish Quarterly Review, October, 1898.
Compare with the translation of D. C. Duling in
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha volume 1,
Edited by James H. Charlesworth, Doubleday, 1983, p. 935 ff.
I have noted the original page numbers like this: .
I have renumbered the footnotes to follow each verse.
Footnotes in  by J.H. Peterson.
The Testament of Solomon
(translated from the codex of the Paris Library, after the
edition of Fleck, Wissensch. Reise, bd. ii. abth. 3)
1. Testament of Solomon, son of David, who was king in Jerusalem,
and mastered and controlled all spirits of the air, on the earth, and
under the earth. By means of them also he wrought all the transcendent
works of the Temple. Telling also of the authorities they
wield against men, and by what angels these demons are brought to naught.
Of the sage Solomon.
Blessed art thou, O Lord God, who didst give Solomon such
authority. Glory to thee and might unto the ages. Amen.
2. And behold, when the Temple of the city of Jerusalem was
being built, and the artificers were working thereat, Ornias the
demon came among them toward sunset; and he took away half
of the pay of the chief-deviser's (?)1 little boy, as well as half his food.
He also continued to suck the thumb of his right hand every day.
And the child grew thin, although he was very much loved by
1. [D: master workman’s ]
3. So King Solomon called the boy one day, and questioned him,
saying: "Do I not love thee more than all the artisans who are
working in the Temple of God? Do I not give thee double wages
and a double supply of food? How is it that day by day and hour by
hour thou growest thinner?"
4. But the child said to the king: "I pray thee, O king. Listen to
what has befallen all that thy child hath. After we are all released
from our work on the Temple of God, after sunset, when I lie down
to rest, one of the evil demons comes and takes away from me one half
of my pay and one half of my food. Then he also takes hold of my right
hand and sucks my thumb. And lo, my soul is oppressed, and so my
body waxes thinner every day."
5. Now when I Solomon heard this, I entered the Temple of God,
and prayed with all my soul, night and day, that the demon might be
delivered into my hands, and that I might gain authority over him.
And it came about through my prayer that grace was given to me
from the Lord Sabaoth by Michael his archangel. [He brought me]
a little ring, having a seal consisting of an engraved stone, and said
to me: "Take, O Solomon, king, son of David, the gift which the
Lord God has sent thee, the highest Sabaoth. With it thou shalt lock
up all demons of the earth, male and female; and with their help
thou shalt build up Jerusalem. [But] thou [must] wear this seal of
God. And this engraving of the seal of the ring sent thee is
2. [D omits the last sentence.]
6. And I Solomon was overjoyed, and praised and glorified the God
of heaven and earth. And on the morrow I called the boy, and gave
him the ring, and said to him: "take this, and at the hour in which
the demon shall come unto thee, throw this ring at the chest of the
demon, and say to him: 'In the name of God, King Solomon calls
thee hither.3' And then do thou come running to me, without
having any misgivings or fear in respect of aught thou mayest hear
on the part of the demon."
3. [D: Come! Solomon summons you!]
7. So the child took the ring, and went off; and behold, at the
customary hour Ornias, the fierce demon, came like a burning fire
to take the pay from the child. But the child according to the
instructions received from the king, threw the ring at the chest
of the demon, and said: "King Solomon calls thee hither." And
then he went off at a run to the king. But the demon cried out
aloud, saying: "Child, why hast thou done this to me? Take
the ring off me, and I will render to thee the gold of the earth.
Only take this off me, and forbear to lead me away to Solomon4."
4. [D: Remove the ring and give it back to Solomon]
8. But the child said to the demon: "As the Lord God of Israel
liveth, I will not brook thee. So come hither." And the child came
at a run, rejoicing, to the king, and said: "I have brought the demon,
O king, as thou didst command me, O my master. And behold, he
stands before the gates of the court of thy palace, crying out, and
supplicating with a loud voice; offering me the silver and gold of the
earth if I will only bring him unto thee5."
5. [D: would not deliver him to you.]
9. And when Solomon heard this, he rose up from his throne, and
went outside into the vestibule of the court of his palace; and there
he saw the demon, shuddering and trembling. And he said to him:
"Who art thou?" And the demon answered: "I am called Ornias."
10. And Solomon said to him: "Tell me, O demon, to what
zodiacal sign thou art subject." And he answered: "To the Water-pourer6.
And those who are consumed with desire for the noble virgins
upon earth . . . . . [there appears to be a lacuna here], these I strangle7. But in case
there is no disposition to sleep8, I am changed into three forms.
Whenever men come to be enamoured of women, I metamorphose
myself into a comely female; and I take hold of the men in their
sleep, and play with them. And after a while I again take to my
wings, and hie me to the heavenly regions. I also appear as a lion, and
I am commanded by all the demons. I am offspring of the
archangel Uriel9, the power of God."
6. [D: Aquarius.]
7. [D: I strangle those who reside in Aquarius because of their passion for women whose zodiacal sign is Virgo.]
8. [D: while in a trance...]
9. [D: Ouriel.]
11. I Solomon, having heard the name of the archangel, prayed
and glorified God, the Lord of heaven and earth. And I sealed the
demon and set him to work at stone-cutting, so that he might cut the
stones in the Temple, which, lying along the shore, had been brought
by the Sea of Arabia. But he, fearful of the iron, continued and
said to me: "I pray thee, King Solomon, let me go free; and I will
bring you all the demons." And as he was not willing to be subject
to me, I prayed the archangel Uriel to come and succour me; and
I forthwith beheld the archangel Uriel coming down to me from the
12. And the angel bade the whales10 of the sea come out of the abyss.
And he cast his destiny upon the ground, and that [destiny] made
subject [to him] the great demon11. And he commanded the great
demon and bold Ornias, to cut stones at the Temple12. And accordingly
I Solomon glorified the God of heaven and Maker of the earth.
And he bade Ornias come with his destiny, and gave him the seal,
saying: "Away with thee, and bring me hither the prince of all the
10. [D: sea monsters. ... The sea monsters are named Behemoth (the male)
and Leviathan (the female) in 4Ezra 6:48-52, 1En 60:7.]
11. [D: he withered up their species and cast his fate to the ground]
12. [D adds: and to bring to completion the construction of the Temple]
13. So Ornias took the finger-ring, and went off to Beelzeboul, who
has kingship over the demons. He said to him: "Hither! Solomon
calls thee." But Beelzeboul, having heard, said to him: "Tell me,
who is this Solomon of whom thou speakest to me?" Then Ornias
threw the ring at the chest of Beelzeboul, saying: "Solomon the king
calls thee." But Beelzeboul cried aloud with a mighty voice, and shot
out a great burning flame of fire; and he arose, and followed Ornias,
and came to Solomon.
14. And when I saw the prince of demons, I glorified the Lord God,
Maker of heaven and earth, and I said: "Blessed art thou, Lord God
Almighty, who hast given to Solomon thy servant wisdom, the assessor
of the wise, and hast subjected unto me all the power of he devil."
15. And I questioned him, and said: "Who art thou?"
The demon replied: "I am Beelzebub, the exarch of the demons.
the demons have their chief seats close to me. And I it
is who make manifest the apparition of each demon."13 And he
promised to bring to me in bonds all the unclean spirits. And
I again glorified the God of heaven and earth, as I do always
give thanks to him.
13. [D: The demon said, "I am Beelzeboul, the ruler of the demons."
I demanded that without interruption he sit next to me and explain the manifestations of the demons.]
16. I then asked of the demon if there were females among them.
And when he told me that there were, I said that I desired to
see them. So Beelzeboul went off at high speed, and brought unto
me Onoskelis, that had a very pretty shape, and the skin of a
fair-hued woman; and she tossed her head14.
14. [D: "... fair complexion, but her legs were those of a mule." Onoskelis
means "she who has ass's legs."]
17. And when she was come, I said to her: "Tell me who art
thou?" But she said to me: "I am called Onoskelis, a spirit
wrought ...[?shabtai/Saturn?]15, lurking upon the earth. There is
a golden cave where I lie. But I have a place that ever shifts16.
At one time I strangle men with a noose; at another, I creep up
from the nature to the arms [in marg: "worms"]17. But
my most frequent dwelling-places are the precipices, caves, ravines.
Oftentimes, however, do I consort with men in the semblance of
a woman, and above all with those of a dark skin18. For they share
my star with me; since they it is who privily or openly worship
my star, without knowing that they harm themselves, and but whet
my appetite for further mischief. For they wish to provide money
by means of memory (commemoration?)19, but I supply a little to
those who worship me fairly."
15. [D: My name is Onoskelis. I am a spirit which has been made into a body.]
16. [D: I have a many sided character.]
17. [D: I pervert them from their true natures.]
18. [D: honey-colored]
19. [D: by remembering (me)]
18. And I Solomon questioned her about her birth, and she replied:
"I was born of a voice untimely, the so-called echo of a
man's ordure20 dropped in a wood."21
20. For the demon born of an echo we have an analogue
in the Hebrew Bath Kol, "the daughter of a voice." In
the Gnostic Hymn to Hermes, edited by Dieterich, Abrasax,
p 19, we read, l. 104...
21. [D: I was generated from an unexpected voice which is
called a voice of the echo of a black (lead?) heaven,
emitted in matter. (meaning uncertain)]
19. And I said to her: "Under what star dost thou pass?"
And she answered me: "Under the star of the full moon, for
the reason that the moon travels over most things." Then
I said to her: "And
what angel is it that frustrates thee?"
And she said to me: "He that in thee [or "through thee"]
is reigning." And I thought that she mocked me, and bade
a soldier strike her. But she cried aloud, and said: "I am
[subjected] to thee, O king, by the wisdom of God given to thee,
and by the angel Joel."22
22. [Instead of "and by the angel Joel."
D reads "So I uttered the name of the Holy One of Israel and..."]
20. So I commanded her to spin the hemp for the ropes used in
the building of the house of God; and accordingly, when I had
sealed and bound her, she was so overcome and brought to naught
as to stand night and day spinning the hemp.
21. And I at once bade another demon to be led unto me; and instantly
there approached me the demon Asmodeus23, bound, and I asked him:
"Who art thou?" But he shot on me a glance of anger and
rage, and said: "And who art thou?" And I said to him: "Thus
punished as thou art, answerest thou me?" But he, with rage,
said to me: "But how shall I answer thee, for thou art a
son of man; whereas I was born an angel's seed by a daughter of
man, so that no word of our heavenly kind addressed to the earth-born
can be overweening24. Wherefore also my star is bright in heaven,
and men call it, some the Wain25, and some the dragon's child. I
keep near unto this star. So ask me not many things; for thy kingdom
also after a little time is to be disrupted, and thy glory is
but for a season. And short will be thy tyranny over us; and then
we shall again have free range over mankind, so as that they shall
revere us as if we were gods, not knowing, men that they are,
the names of the angels set over us."
23. [Asmodeus also appears in Tobit 3:8, and is ultimately
derived from the Avestan
demon Aeshma-daeva ("demon of wrath"). -JHP]
25. [D: Great Bear.]
22. And I Solomon, on hearing this, bound him more carefully,
and ordered him to be flogged with thongs of ox-hide26, and to tell
me humbly what was his name and what his business. And he answered
me thus: "I am called Asmodeus among mortals, and my business
is to plot against the newly wedded, so that they may not know
one another. And I sever them utterly by many calamities, and
I waste away the beauty of virgin women, and estrange their hearts."
26. [D: flogged with a rod]
23. And I said to him: "Is this thy only business?"
And he answered me: "I transport men into fits of madness
and desire, when they have wives of their own, so that they leave
them, and go off by
night and day to others that belong to other
men; with the result that they commit sin, and fall into murderous
27. [D: I spread (or, I *sting to ?) madness about women through the stars,
and I have often committed a rash of murders.]
24. And I adjured him by the name of the Lord Sabaôth, saying:
"Fear God, Asmodeus, and tell me by what angel thou art frustrated."
But he said: "By Raphael, the archangel that stands before
the throne of God. But the liver and gall of a fish put me to
flight, when smoked over ashes of the tamarisk28." I again
asked him, and said: "Hide not aught from me. For I am Solomon,
son of David, King of Israel. Tell me the name of the fish which
thou reverest." And he answered: "It is the Glanos29 by
name, and is found in the rivers of Assyria; wherefore it is that
I roam about in those parts."
28. [D: smoking on coals of charcoal. Compare Tobit, where
Raphael instructs him in the use of the gall, heart, and liver for various
29. [D: "sheatfish", a large catfish. Gk. ho, hê glanis.]
25. And I said to him: "Hast thou nothing else about thee,
Asmodeus?" And he answered: "The power of God knoweth,
which hath bound me with the indissoluble bonds of yonder one's
seal, that whatever I have told thee is true. I pray thee, King
Solomon, condemn me not to [go into] water." But I smiled,
and said to him: "As the Lord God of my fathers liveth, I
will lay iron on thee to wear. But thou shalt also make the clay
for the entire construction of the Temple, treading it down with
thy feet." And I ordered them to give him ten water-jars
to carry water in. And the demon groaned terribly, and did the
work I ordered him to do. And this I did, because that fierce
demon Asmodeus knew even the future. And I Solomon glorified God,
who gave wisdom to me Solomon his servant. And the liver of the
fish and its gall I hung on the spike of a reed30, and burned it
over Asmodeus because of his being so strong, and his unbearable
malice was thus frustrated.
30. [D: liver and gall of the fish, along with a branch of storax.]
26. And I summoned again to stand before me Beelzeboul, the prince
of demons, and I sat him down on a raised seat of honour, and
said to him: "Why art thou alone, prince of the demons?"
And he said to me: "Because I alone am left of the angels
of heaven that came down32. For I was first angel in the first heaven
being entitled Beelzeboul. And now I control all those who are
bound in Tartarus. But I too have a child33, and he haunts the Red
Sea. And on any suitable occasion he comes up to me again, being
subject to me; and reveals to me what he has done, and I support
31. [D omits "on a raised seat of honour"]
32. [i.e. fell]
33. [D: There also accompanied me another ungodly (angel)]
34. [D: when he is ready, he will come in triumph.]
27. I Solomon said unto him: "Beelzeboul, what is thy employment?"
And he answered me: "I destroy kings.35 I ally myself with
foreign tyrants. And my own demons I set on36 to men, in order that
the latter may believe in them and be lost. And the chosen servants
of God, priests and faithful men, I excite unto desires for wicked
sins, and evil heresies, and lawless deeds; and they obey me,
and I bear them on to destruction. And I inspire men with envy,
and [desire for] murder, and for wars and sodomy, and other evil
things. And I will destroy the world."37
35. [D: I bring destruction by means of tyrants]
36. [D: to be worshipped]
37. [So MS P. D reads simply "I bring about jealousies
and murders in a country, and I instigate wars."]
28. So I said to him: "Bring to me thy child, who is, as
thou sayest, in the Red Sea." But he said to me: "I
will not bring him to thee. But there shall come to me another
demon called Ephippas38. Him will I bind, and he will bring him
up from the deep unto me." And I said to him: "How comes
thy son to be in the depth of the sea, and what is his name? "And
he answered me: "Ask me not, for thou canst not learn from
me. However, he will come to thee by any command, and will tell
38. [According to D, Ephippas is an Arabian wind demon.]
39. [D adds: So I said to him, "Tell me in which star you
reside." "The one called by men the Evening Star."]
29. I said to him: "Tell me by what angel thou art frustrated."
And he answered: "By the holy and precious name of the Almighty
God, called by the Hebrews by a row of numbers, of which the sum
is 644, and among the Greeks it is Emmanuel1. And if one of
the Romans adjure me by the great name of the power Eleéth,
I disappear at once."
1. The text must be faulty, for the word Emmanuel
is the Hebrew. The sum 644 is got by adding together the Greek
30. I Solomon was astounded when I heard this; and I ordered him
to saw up Theban1 marbles. And when he began to saw the marbles,
the other demons cried out with a loud voice, howling because
of their king Beelzeboul.
1. We hear of Pentelic marble in Strabo, but the
reference in the text may be to Thebes in Egypt.
31. But I Solomon questioned him, saying: "If thou wouldst
gain a respite, discourse to me about the things in heaven."
And Beelzeboul said: "Hear, O king, if thou burn gum, and
incense, and bulb of the sea1, with nard and saffron, and light
seven lamps in an earthquake2, thou wilt firmly fix thy house.
And if, being pure3,
thou light them at dawn in the sun alight,
then wilt thou see the heavenly dragons, how they wind themselves
along and drag the chariot of the sun."
1. Perhaps the "sea-bulbs" were the balls
of hair-like texture which the sea washes up on Mediterranean
shores, e.g. in Tunisia.
2. Perhaps "in a row," should be read.
3. For the condition here insisted on cp. Dieterich,
Abrasax, p. 141, where in an incantation ceremonial purity
is similarly insisted on. The ritual of a magic papyrus given
by Dieterich, p. 169, is very similar to that here prescribed
in the Testament.
32. And I Solomon, having heard this, rebuked him, and said: "Silence
for this present1, and continue to saw the marbles as I commanded
thee." And I Solomon praised God, and commanded another demon
to present himself to me. And one came before me who carried his
face high up in the air, but the rest of the spirit curled away
like a snail. And it broke through the few soldiers, and raised
also a terrible dust on the ground, and carried it upwards; and
then again hurled it back to frighten us, and asked what questions
I could ask as a rule. And I stood up, and spat2 on the ground
in that spot, and sealed with the ring of God. And forthwith the
dust-wind stopped. Then I asked him, saying: "Who art thou,
O wind?" Then he once more shook up a dust, and answered
me: "What wouldst thou have, King Solomon?" I answered
him: "Tell me what thou art called, and I would fain ask
thee a question. But so far I give thanks to God who has made
me wise to answer their evil plots."
1. So Luke xxii. 51.
2. For the use of spittle to produce a cure or other
effect in a magical way, cp. Mark vii. 33 and viii. 23. In John
ix. 6, Jesus, we read, "spat on the ground, and made clay
of the spittle, and anointed the eyes with the clay." Of
this magic use of spittle Pliny, in his Natural History,
gives numerous examples. It was common in antiquity.
33. But [the demon] answered me: "I am the spirit of the
ashes (Tephras)." And I said to him: "What is thy pursuit?"
And he said: "I bring darkness on men, and set fire to fields;
and I bring homesteads to naught. But most busy am I in summer.
However, when I get an opportunity, I creep into corners of the
wall, by night and day. For I am offspring of the great one, and
nothing less." Accordingly I said to him: "Under what
star dost thou lie?" And he answered: "In the very tip
of the moon's horn, when it is found in the south. There is my
star. For I have been bidden to restrain the convulsions of the
hemitertian fever; and this is why many men pray to the hemitertian
fever, using these three names: Bultala, Thallal,
I heal them." And I said to him: "I am Solomon; when
therefore thou wouldst do harm, by whose aid dost thou do it?"
But he said to me: "By the angel's, by whom also the third
day's fever is lulled to rest." So I questioned him, and
said: "And by what name1?" And he answered: "That
of the archangel Azael." And I summoned the archangel Azael,
and set a seal on the demon, and commanded him to seize great
stones, and toss them up to the workmen on the higher parts of
the Temple. And, being compelled, the demon began to do what he
was bidden to do.
1. Cp. Acts iv. 7.
34. And I glorified God afresh who gave me this authority, and
ordered another demon to come before me. And there came seven
spirits1, females, bound and woven together, fair in appearance
and comely. And I Solomon, seeing them, questioned them and said:
"Who are ye?" But they, with one accord, said with one
voice2: "We are of the thirty-three elements of the cosmic
ruler of the darkness3." And the first said: "I am
Deception." The second said: "I am Strife." The
third: "I am Klothod, which is battle." The fourth:
"I am Jealousy." The fifth: "I am Power."
The sixth: "I am Error." The seventh: "I am the
worst of all, and our stars are in heaven. Seven stars humble
in sheen, and all together. And we are called as it were goddesses.
We change our place all and together, and together we live, sometimes
in Lydia, sometimes in Olympus, sometimes in a great mountain."
1. The Pleiades seem to be referred to. Cp. Job
xxxviii. 31, in the Revised Version: "Canst thou bind the
cluster of the Pleiades?" They had a malign influence. The
grouping of evil spirits by sevens is common in Babylonian and
Jewish folk-lore. As examples I may cite the Testamentum
of Reuben, ch. 2, and the seven evil spirits of the N.T. Possibly,
however, the Seven Planets are here in question; though this is
unlikely, for they do not tally with the description given.
2. Rom. xv. 6 has the same phrase. For "thirty-three"
we should read "thirty-six" elements. Note that later
in the Testament these seven spirits are not among the
Kosmokrators, a proof that the document before us is a composite
3. Paul speaks of the Kosmokrators in Eph. vi. 12:
"Our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against
the principalities, against the powers, against the world-rulers
of this darkness." See Iren. Haer. I. i. 10.
35. So I Solomon questioned them one by one, beginning with the
first, and going down to the seventh. The first said: "I
am Deception, I deceive and weave snares here and there. I whet
and excite heresies. But I have an angel who frustrates me, Lamechalal."
36. Likewise also the second said: "I am Strife, strife of
strifes. I bring timbers, stones, hangers, my weapons on the spot.
But I have an angel who frustrates me, Baruchiachel."
37. Likewise also the third said: "I am called Klothod1,
which is Battle, and I cause the well-behaved to scatter and fall
foul one of the other. And why do I say so much? I have an angel
that frustrates me: "Marmarath."
1. Fabricius, Cod. Pseudepigr. V.T. vol.
I, p. 1047, reads Klothon, which must be i.q. Kludun, which Hesychius
explains thus: ...
38. Likewise also the fourth said: "I cause men to forget
their sobriety and moderation. I part them and split them into
parties; for Strife follows me hand in hand. I rend the husband
from the sharer of his bed, and children from parents, and brothers
from sisters. But why tell so much to my despite? I have an angel
that frustrates me, the great Balthial."
39. Likewise also the fifth said: "I am Power. By power I
raise up tyrants and tear down kings. To all rebels I furnish
power. I have an angel that frustrates me, Asteraôth."1
1. D: Asteraoth. Cp. 1Kgs 11:5. -JHP
40. Likewise also the sixth said: "I am Error1, O King
Solomon. And I will make thee to err, as I have before made thee
to err, when I caused thee to slay thy own brother2. I will
lead you into error, so as to pry into graves3; and 1 teach
them that dig, and I lead errant souls away from all piety, and
many other evil traits are mine. But I have an angel that frustrates
1. Cp. Testam. of Symeon, ch. 3.
2. See I Kings ii. 25.
3. A reference to necromancy, of which the object
was to oblige the spirit of the dead to enter oneself.
41. Likewise also the seventh said: "I am the worst, and
I make thee worse off than thou wast; because I will impose the
bonds of Artemis. But the locust1 will set me free, for by
means thereof is it fated that thou shalt achieve my desire .
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . For if one were wise, he would
not turn his steps toward me."
1. This refers to the closing incident narrated
in the Testament, the sacrificing by Solomon of five locusts
to Moloch. Tatian, Orat. ad Graecos, cap. 12, speaks of
Artemis magos. She is the same as Hecate.
42. So I Solomon, having heard and wondered, sealed them with
my ring; and since they were so considerable, I bade them dig
the foundations of the Temple of God. For the length of it was
250 cubits. And I bade them be industrious, and with one murmur
of joint protest they began to perform the tasks enjoined.
43. But I Solomon glorified the Lord, and bade another demon come
before me. And there was brought to me a demon having all the
limbs of a man, but without a head. And I, seeing him, said to
him: "Tell me, who art thou?'' And he answered: "I am
a demon." So I said to him: "Which?" And he answered
me: "I am called Envy. For I delight to devour heads, being
desirous to secure for myself a head; but I do not eat enough,
but am anxious to have such a head as thou hast."
44. I Solomon, on hearing this, sealed him, stretching out my
hand against his chest. Whereon the demon leapt up, and threw
himself down, and gave a groan, saying: "Woe is me! where
am I come to? O traitor Ornias, I cannot see!" So I said
to him: "I am Solomon. Tell me then how thou dost manage
to see." And he answered me: "By means of my feelings."
I then, Solomon, having heard his voice come up to me, asked him
how he managed to speak. And he answered me: "I, O King Solomon,
am wholly voice, for I have inherited the voices of many men.
For in the case of all men who are called dumb, I it is who smashed
their heads, when they were children and had reached their eighth
day. Then when a child is crying in the night, I become a spirit,
and glide by means of his voice. . . . In the crossways1 also
I have many services to render, and my encounter is fraught with
harm. For I grasp in all instant a man's head, and with my hands,
as with a sword, I cut it off, and put it on to myself. And in
this way, by means of the fire which is in me, through my neck
it is swallowed up. I it is that sends grave mutilations and incurable
on men's feet, and inflict sores."
1. This seems the sense of enodiais, unless
understood, trivialibus dis, "to the demons of the
wayside or cross-road." Hecate was such a goddess, and in
C.I. 26 we have mention of a daimon enodia, the
Latin Trivia. As a subst. the neut. plur. enodia: = blisters
caused by walking, in Theophr, Sud. 15.
45. And I Solomon, on hearing this, said to him: "Tell me
how thou dost discharge forth the fire? Out of what sources dost
thou emit it?" And the spirit said to me: "From the
Day-star1. For here hath not yet been found that Elburion,
to whom men offer prayers and kindle lights. And his name is invoked
by the seven demons before me. And he cherishes them."
1. Or, "from the Orient."
46. But I said to him: "Tell me his name." But he answered:
"I cannot tell thee. For if I tell his name, I render myself
incurable. But he will come in response to his name." And
on hearing this, I Solomon said to him: "Tell me then, by
what angel thou art frustrated?" And he answered: "By
the fiery flash of lightning."
And I bowed myself before
the Lord God of Israel, and bade him remain in the keeping of
Beelzeboul until Iax1 should come.
1. Bornemann conjectures "a guardian or watcher."
But the angel Iax recurs below in # 86.
47. Then I ordered another demon to come before me, and there
came into my presence a hound, having a very large shape, and
it spoke with a loud voice, and said, "Hail, Lord, King Solomon!"
And I Solomon was astounded. I said to it: Who art thou, O hound?"
And it answered: "I do indeed seem to thee to be a hound,
but before thou wast, O King Solomon, I was a man that wrought
many unholy deeds on earth. I was surpassingly learned in letters,
and was so mighty that I could hold the stars of heaven back.
And many divine works did I prepare. For I do harm to men who
follow after our star, and turn them to . . . .1 And I seize
the frenzied men by the larynx, and so destroy them."
1. The MS. has a vox nihili. Can it mean
"her that is born of echo" (see above, p. 19, n. 8).?
48. And I Solomon said to him: "What is thy name?" And
he answered: ''Staff" (Rabdos). And I said to him: "What
is thine employment? And what results canst thou achieve?"
And he replied: ''Give me thy man, and I will lead him away into
a mountainous spot, and will show him a green stone tossed to
and fro, with which thou mayest adorn the temple of the Lord God."
49. And I Solomon, on hearing this, ordered my servant to set
off with him, and to take the finger-ring bearing the seal of
God with him. And I said to him: "Whoever shall show thee
the green stone, seal him with this finger-ring. And mark the
spot with care, and bring me the demon hither. And the demon showed
him the green stone, and he sealed it, and brought the demon to
me. And I Solomon decided to confine with my seal on my right
hand the two, the headless demon, likewise the hound, that was
so huge1; he should be bound as well. And I bade the hound
keep safe the fiery spirit so that lamps as it were might by day
and night cast their light through its maw on the artisans at
1. The text seems corrupt here.
50. And I Solomon took from the mine of that stone 200 shekels
for the supports of the table of incense, which was similar in
appearance. And I Solomon glorified the Lord God, and then closed
round the treasure of that stone. And I ordered afresh the demons
to cut marble for the construction of the house of God. And I
Solomon prayed to the Lord, and asked the hound, saying: "By
art thou frustrated?" And the demon replied: "By
the great Brieus1."
1. Briareus is suggested by Bornemann as the right
reading, but with little probability, since Briareus would not
have been turned into an angel.
51. And I praised the Lord God of heaven and earth, and bade another
demon come forward to me; and there came before me one in the
form of a lion roaring. And he stood and answered me saying: "O
king, in the form which I have, I am a spirit quite incapable
of being perceived. Upon all men who lie prostrate with sickness
I leap, coming stealthily along; and I render the man weak, so
that his habit of body is enfeebled. But I have also another glory,
O king. I cast out demons, and I have legions under my control.
And I am capable of being received1 in my dwelling-places,
along with all the demons belonging to the legions under me."
But I Solomon, on hearing this, asked him: "What is thy name?"
But he answered: "Lion-bearer, Rath2 in kind." And
I said to him: "How art thou to be frustrated along with
thy legions? What angel is it that frustrates thee?" And
he answered: "If I tell thee my name, I bind not myself alone,
but also the legions of demons under me."
1. dektikos seems here to bear this sense,
as also in the fragment of a very old commentary on the Shepherd
of Hermas in the Oxyrhynchus papyri. part i, by Grenfell
and Hunt, 1898, p. 9. The dwelling-places are the persons of whom
the spirit, good or evil, takes possession. So in the Docetic
Acta Iohannis (ed. M.R. James) the Christ says: "I
have no dwelling, and I have dwellings; I have no place, and I
have places; I have no temple, and I have temples. ... Behold
thyself in me who address thee."
2. radinos, "slender tapering" is
suggested by Bornemann as the true reading, because a "staff"
might be such.
52. So I said to him: "I adjure thee in the name of the God
Sabaoth, to tell me by what name thou art frustrated along with
thy host." And the spirit answered me: "The 'great among
men,' who is to suffer many things at the hands of men, whose
name is the figure 644, which is Emmanuel; he it is who has bound
us, and who will then come and plunge us from the steep1 under
water. He is noised abroad in the three letters which bring him
1. The allusion is to the swine of Gadara.
2. The three characters are apparently the numbers
53. And I Solomon, on hearing this, glorified God, and condemned
his legion to carry wood from the thicket. And I condemned the
lion-shaped one himself to saw up the wood small with his teeth,
for burning in the unquenchable furnace for the Temple of God.
54. And I worshipped the Lord God of Israel, and bade another
demon come forward. And there came before me a dragon, three-headed,
of fearful hue. And I questioned him: "Who art thou?"
And he answered me: "I am a caltrop-like spirit1, whose
activity in three lines. But I blind children in women's wombs,
and twirl their ears round. And I make them deaf2 and mute.
And I have again in my third head means of slipping in3. And
I smite men in the limbless part of the body, and cause them to
fall down, and foam, and grind their teeth. But I have my own
way of being frustrated, Jerusalem being signified in writing,
unto the place called 'of the head4." For there is fore-appointed
the angel of the great counsel, and now he will openly dwell on
the cross. He doth frustrate me, and to him am I subject."
1. Tribolaios. The tribolos was a three-spiked
instrument, thrown on the ground to wound horses' feet.
2. bubá, an unknown word.
3. a word of doubtful sense.
4. i.e. Golgotha. The old legend was that Adam's
skull reposed in this spot, and that the cross was planted upon
55. "But in the place where thou sittest, O King Solomon,
standeth a column in the air, of purple...1 The demon called
Ephippas hath brought [it] up from the Red Sea, from inner Arabia.
He it is that shall be shut up in a skin-bottle and brought before
thee. But at the entrance of the Temple, which thou hast begun
to build, O King Solomon, lies stored much gold, which dig thou
up and carry off." And I Solomon sent my servant, and found
it to be as the demon told me. And I sealed him with my ring,
and praised the Lord God."
1. The meaning of the last part of this compound
56. So I said to him: "What art thou called?" And the
demon said: "I am the crest of dragons." And I bade
him make bricks in the Temple. He had human hands.
57. And I adored the Lord God of Israel, and bade another demon
present himself. And there came before me a spirit in woman's
form, that had a head without any limbs1, and her hair was
dishevelled. And I said to her: "Who art thou?" But
she answered: "Nay, who art thou? And why dost thou want
to hear concerning me? But, as thou wouldst learn, here I stand
bound before thy face. Go
then into thy royal storehouses and
wash thy hands. Then sit down afresh before thy tribunal, and
ask me questions; and thou shalt learn, O king, who I am."
1. Here we seem to have the Greek head of Medusa
transformed into a demon.
58. And I Solomon did as she enjoined me, and restrained myself
because of the wisdom dwelling in me1; in order that I might
hear of her deeds, and reprehend them, and manifest them to men.
And I sat down, and said to the demon: "What art thou?"
And she said: "I am called among men Obizuth; and by night
I sleep not, but go my rounds over all the world, and visit women
in childbirth. And divining the hour I take my stand2; and
if I am lucky, I strangle the child. But if not, I retire to another
place. For I cannot for a single night retire unsuccessful. For
I am a fierce3 spirit, of myriad names and many shapes. And
now hither, now thither I roam. And to westering parts I go my
rounds. But as it now is, though thou hast sealed me round with
the ring of God, thou hast done nothing. I am not standing before
thee, and thou wilt not be able to command me. For I have no work
other than the destruction of children, and the making their ears
to be deaf, and the working of evil to their eyes, and the binding
their mouths with a bond, and the ruin of their minds, and paining
of their bodies."
1. The Sophia, identified by Philo and the early
Fathers with the Logos, is supposed to have entered into and taken
possession of Solomon as it afterwards did with Jesus.
2. stamatihu, an unknown verb.
59. When I Solomon heard this, I marvelled at her appearance,
for I beheld all her body to be in darkness. But her glance was
altogether bright and greeny, and her hair was tossed wildly like
a dragon's; and the whole of her limbs were invisible. And her
voice was very clear as it came to me. And I cunningly said: "Tell
me by what angel thou art frustrated, O evil spirit?" By
she answered me: "By the angel of God called Afarôt,
which is interpreted Raphael, by whom I am frustrated now and
for all time. His name, if any man know it, and write the same
on a woman in childbirth, then I shall not be able to enter her.
Of this name the number is 6401." And I Solomon having
heard this, and having glorified the Lord, ordered her hair to
be bound, and that she should be hung up in front of the Temple
of God; that all the children of Israel, as they passed, might
see it, and glorify the Lord God of Israel, who had given me this
authority, with wisdom and power from God, by means of this signet.
1. Bornemann (Zeitschr. f.d. Hist. Theol.
1844, p. 38) gives the tale of figures. r = 100; a = 1; f = 500;
a = 1; m = 8; l = 30. Total 640.
60. And I again ordered another demon to come before me. And the
came, rolling itself along, one in appearance like to a dragon,
but having the face and hands of a man. And all its limbs, except
the feet, were those of a dragon; and it had wings on its back.
And when I beheld it, I was astonied, and said: "Who art
thou, demon, and what art thou called? And whence hast thou come?
61. And the spirit answered and said: "This is the first
time I have stood before the, O King Solomon. I am a spirit made
into a god among men, but now brought to naught by the ring and
wisdom vouchsafed to thee by God. Now I am the so-called winged
dragon1, and I chamber2 not with many women, but only with a
few that are of fair shape, which possess the name of xuli3, of
this star. And I pair with them in the guise of a spirit winged
in form, coitum habens per nates4. And she on whom I have leapt
goes heavy with child, and that which is born of her becomes eros.
But since such offspring cannot be carried by men, the woman in
question breaks wind. Such is my role. Supposed then only that
I am satisfied, and all the other demons molested and disturbed
by thee will speak the whole truth. But those composed of fire
5 will cause to be burned up by fire the material of the logs
which is to be collected by them for the building in the Temple."
1. pterodrákun, a word not in the
2. [i.e. copulate.]
3. [D: Touxylou.]
4. [D: copulating (with them) through their buttocks.]
5. Tà dè dià pyrós.
62. And as the demon said this, I saw the spirit going forth from
his mouth, and it consumed the wood of the frankincense-tree,
and burned up all the logs which we had placed in the Temple of
God. And I Solomon saw what the spirit had done, and I marvelled.
63. And, having glorified God, I asked the dragon-shaped demon,
and said: "Tell me, by what angel art thou frustrated?"
And he answered: "By the great angel which has its seat in
the second heaven, which is called in Hebrew Bazazeth. And I Solomon,
having heard this, and having invoked his angel, condemned him
to saw up marbles for the building of the Temple of God; and I
praised God, and commanded another demon to come before me.
64. And there came before my face another spirit, as it were a
woman in the form she had. But on her shoulders she had two other
heads with hands. And I asked her, and said: "Tell me, who
art thou?" And she said to me: "I am Enêpsigos,
who also have a myriad names." And I said her: "By what
angel art thou frustrated?" But she said to me: "What
seekest, what askest thou? I undergo changes, like the goddess
I am called. And I change again, and pass into possession of another
shape. And be not
desirous therefore to know all that concerns
me. But since thou art before me for this much, hearken. I have
my abode in the moon, and for that reason I possess three forms.
At times I am magically1 invoked by the wise as Kronos. At
other times, in connexion with those who bring me down, I come
down and appear in another shape. The measure of the element2
is inexplicable and indefinable, and not to be frustrated. I then,
changing into these three forms, come down and become such as
thou seest me; but I am frustrated by the angel Rathanael, who
sits in the third heaven. This then is why I speak to thee. Yonder
temple cannot contain me."
2. Perhaps "the place or size of the heavenly
65. I therefore Solomon prayed to my God, and I invoked the angel
of whom Enépsigos spoke to me, and used my seal. And I
sealed her with a triple chain, and (placed) beneath her the fastening
of the chain. I used the seal of God, and the spirit prophesied
to me, saying: "This is what thou, King Solomon, doest to
us. But after a time thy kingdom shall be broken, and again in
season this Temple shall be riven asunder1; and all Jerusalem
shall be undone by the King of the Persians and Medes and Chaldaeans.
And the vessels of this Temple, which thou makest, shall be put
to servile uses of the gods; and along with them all the jars,
in which thou dost shut us up, shall be broken by the hands of
men. And then we shall go forth in great power hither and thither,
and be disseminated all over the world. And we shall lead astray
the inhabited world for a long season, until the Son of God is
stretched upon the cross. For never before doth arise a king like
unto him, one frustrating us all, whose mother shall not have
contact with man. Who else can receive such authority over spirits,
except he, whom the first devil will seek to tempt, but will not
prevail over? The number of his name is 6442, which is Emmanuel.
Wherefore, O King Solomon, thy time is evil, and thy years short
and evil, and to thy servant shall thy kingdom be given3."
1. I conjecture the sense which the word must bear
in this context.
3. This prophecy corresponds roughly to the one which
Lactantius, Instit. Div. lib. iv. c. 18, quotes from an
apocryphal Book of Solomon.
66. And I Solomon, having heard this, glorified God. And though
I marvelled at the apology of the demons, I did not credit it
until it came true. And I did not believe their words; but when
realized, then I understood, and at my death I wrote
this Testament to the children of Israel, and gave it to
them, so that they might know the powers of the demons and their
shapes, and the names of their angels, by which these angels are
frustrated. And I glorified the Lord God of Israel, and commanded
the spirits to be bound with bonds indissoluble.
67. And having praised God, I commanded another spirit to come
before me; and there came before my face another demon, having
in front the shape of a horse, but behind of a fish. And he had
a mighty voice, and said to me: "O King Solomon, I am a fierce
spirit of the sea, and I am greedy of gold and silver. I am such
a spirit as rounds itself and comes over the expanses of the water
of the sea, and I trip up the men who sail thereon. For I round
myself into a wave1, and transform myself, and then throw myself
on ships and come right in on them. And that is my business, and
my way of getting hold of money and men. For I take the men, and
whirl them round with myself, and hurl the men out of the sea.
For I am not covetous of men's bodies, but cast them up out of
the sea so far. But since Beelzeboul, ruler of the spirits of
air and of those under the earth, and lord of earthly ones, hath
a joint kingship with us in respect of the deeds of each one of
us, therefore I went up from the sea, to get a certain outlook
2 in his company.
1. Cp. Jude 13. That Jude here indulges in no mere
metaphor is clear from the words which follow, which embody the
belief detailed in the Testament of Solomon, p. 40.
2. "descent, or spiritual assault."
68. "But I also have another character and role. I metamorphose
myself into waves, and come up from the sea. And I show myself
to men, so that those on earth call me Kuno[s]paston1, because
I assume the human form. And my name is a true one. For by my
passage up into men, I send forth a certain nausea. I came then
to take counsel with the prince Beelzeboul; and he bound me and
delivered me into thy hands. And I am here before thee because
of this seal, and thou dost now torment me2. Behold now, in
two or three days the spirit that converseth with thee will fail,
because I shall have no water."
1. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. 24. 74 "Cynosbaton,
alii Cynospaston, alii neurospaston vocant; folium habet vestigio
hominis simile. Fert et uvam nigram, in cuius acino nervum habet,
unde neurospastos dicitur." The human form revealed itself
in the footstep, which the leaf resembled.
2. basaníxeis. Cp. Matt. viii. 6, 29;
xiv. 24; Mark v. 7.
69. And I said to him: "Tell me by what angel thou art frustrated."
And he answered: "By Iameth." And I glorified God. I
commanded the spirit to be thrown into a phial along with ten
jugs of sea-water of two measures each1. And I sealed them
round above the marbles and asphalt and pitch in the mouth of
the vessel. And having sealed it with my ring, I ordered it to
be deposited in the Temple of God. And I ordered another spirit
to come before me.
1. Cp. John ii. 6.
70. And there came before my face another enslaved spirit, having
obscurely the form of a man, with gleaming eyes, and bearing in
his hand a blade. And I asked: "Who art thou? But he answered:
"I am a lascivious spirit, engendered of a giant man who
dies in the massacre in the time of the giants." I said to
him: "Tell me what thou art employed on upon earth, and where
thou hast thy dwelling."
71. And he said: "My dwelling is in fruitful places, but
my procedure is this. I seat myself beside the men who pass along
among the tombs, and in untimely season I assume the form of the
dead; and if I catch any one, I at once destroy him with my sword.
But if I cannot destroy him, I cause him to be possessed with
a demon, and to devour his own flesh, and the hair to fall off
his chin." But I said to him: "Do thou then be in fear
of the God of heaven and of earth, and tell me by angel thou art
frustrated." And he answered: "He destroys me who is
to become Saviour, a man whose number, if any one shall write
it on his forehead1, he will defeat me, and in fear I shall
quickly retreat. And, indeed, if any one write this sign on him,
I shall be in fear." And I Solomon, on hearing this, and
having glorified the Lord God, shut up this demon like the rest.
1. Rev. ix. 4; xiii, 16, 17.
72. And I commanded another demon to come before me. And there
came before my face thirty-six spirits, their heads shapeless
like dogs, but in themselves they were human in form; with faces
of asses, faces of oxen, and faces of birds. And I Solomon, on
hearing and seeing them, wondered, and I asked them and said:
"Who are you?" But they, of one accord with one voice,
said1: "We are the thirty-six elements, the world-rulers
2 of this darkness. But, O King Solomon, thou wilt not wrong
us nor imprison us, nor lay command on us; but since the Lord
God has given thee authority over every spirit, in the air, and
on the earth, and under the earth, therefore do we also present
ourselves before thee like the other spirits, from ram and bull,
both twin and crab, lion and virgin, scales and scorpion,
archer, goat-horned, water-pourer, and fish.
1. Acts ii. 1.
2. kosmokratores. Cp. Paul, Eph. vi. 12; Origen,
c. Celsum, viii, 58.
73. Then I Solomon invoked the name of the Lord Sabaoth, and questioned
each in turn as to what was its character. And I bade each one
come forward and tell of its actions. Then the first one came
forward, and said: "I am the first decans of the zodiacal
circle, and I am called the ram, and with me are these two."
So I put to them the question: "Who are ye called?"
The first said: "I, O Lord, am called Ruax, and I cause the
heads of men to be idle, and I pillage their brows. But let me
only hear the words, 'Michael, imprison Ruax,' and at once I retreat."
74. And the second said: "I am called Barsafael, and I cause
those who are subject to my hour to feel the pain of migraine.
If only I hear the words, 'Gabriel, imprison Barsafael,' at once
75. The third said: "I am called Arôtosael. I do harm
to eyes, and grievously injure them. Only let me hear the words,
'Uriel, imprison Aratosael' (sic), at once I retreat . . . . .1"
1. There seems to be a lacuna here.
76. The fifth said: "I am called Iudal, and I bring about
a block in the ears and deafness of hearing. If I hear, 'Uruel
Iudal,' I at once retreat."
77. The sixth said: "I am called Sphendonaêl. I cause
tumours of the parotid gland, and inflammations of the tonsils,
and tetanic recurvation1. If I hear, 'Sabrael, imprison Sphendonaêl,'
at once I retreat.''
1. The Greek medical terms which stand in the Greek
text are found in Hippocrates, Galen, and Cuel. Aurel.
78. And the Seventh said: "I am called Sphandôr, and
I weaken the strength of the shoulders, and cause them to tremble;
and I paralyze the nerves of the hands, and I break and bruise
the bones of the neck. And I, I suck out the marrow. But if I
hear the words, 'Araêl, imprison Sphandôr,' I at once
79. And the eight said: "I am called Belbel. I distort the
hearts and minds of men. If I hear the words, 'Araêl, imprison
Belbel,' I at once retreat."
80. And the ninth said: "I am called Kurtaêl. I send
colics in the bowels. I induce pains. If I hear the words, 'Iaôth,
imprison Kurtaêl,' I at once retreat."
81. The tenth said: "I am called Metathiax. I cause the reins
to ache. If I hear the words, 'Adônaêl, imprison Metathiax,'
I at once retreat."
82. The eleventh said: "I am called Katanikotaêl. I
and wrongs in men's homes, and send on them hard
temper. If any one would be at peace in his home, let him write
on seven leaves of laurel the name of the angel that frustrates
me, along with these names: Iae, Ieô, sons of Sabaôth,
in the name of the great God let him shut up Katanikotaêl.
Then let him wash the laurel-leaves in water, and sprinkle his
house with the water, from within to the outside. And at once
83. The twelfth said: "I am called Saphathoraél, and
I inspire partisanship in men, and delight in causing them to
stumble. If any one will write on paper these names of angels,
Iacô, Iealô, Iôelet, Sabaôth, Ithoth,
Bae, and having folded it up, wear it round his neck or against
his ear, I at once retreat and dissipate the drunken fit."
84. The thirteenth said: "I am called Bobêl (sic),
and I cause nervous illness by my assaults. If I hear the name
of the great 'Adonaêl, imprison Bothothêl,' I at once
85. The fourteenth said: "I am called Kumeatêl, and
I inflict shivering fits and torpor. If only I hear the words:
'Zôrôêl, imprison Kumentaêl,' I at once
86. The fifteenth said: "I am called Roêlêd.
I cause cold and frost and pain in the stomach. Let me only hear
the words: 'Iax, bide not, be not warmed, for Solomon is fairer
than eleven fathers,' I at [once] retreat."
87. The sixteenth said: "I am called Atrax. I inflict upon
men fevers, irremediable and harmful. If you would imprison me,
chop up coriander1 and smear it on the lips, reciting the following
charm: 'The fever which is from dirt. I exorcise thee by the throne
of the most high God, retreat from dirt and retreat from the creature
fashioned by God.' And at once I retreat."
1. Pliny, Nat. Hist. xx. 20, notes the same
use of coriander: "Seminis grana tria in tertianis devorari
iubent aliqui ante accessionem, vel plura illini fronti."
The Testament evidently belongs to Pliny's age.
88. The seventeenth said: "I am called Ieropaêl. On
the stomach of men I sit, and cause convulsions in the bath and
in the road; and wherever I be found, or find a man, I throw him
down. But if any one will say to the afflicted into their ear
these names, three times over, into the right ear: 'Iudarizê,
Sabunê, Denôê,' I at once retreat."
89. The eighteenth said: "I am called Buldumêch. I
separate wife from husband and bring about a grudge between them.
If any one write down the names of thy sires, Solomon, on paper
and place it in the ante-chamber of his house, I retreat thence.
And the legend written shall be as follows: 'The God of Abram,
and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob commands thee -- retire
from this house in peace.' And I at once retire."
90. The nineteenth said: "I am called Naôth, and I
take my seat on the knees of men. If any one write on paper: 'Phnunoboêol,
depart Nathath, and touch thou not the neck,' I at once retreat."
91. The twentieth said: "I am called Marderô. I send
on men incurable fever. If any one write on the leaf of a book:
'Sphênêr, Rafael, retire, drag me not about, flay
me not,' and tie it round his neck, I at once retreat."
92. The twenty-first said: "I am called Alath, and I cause
coughing and hard-breathing in children. If any one write on paper:
'Rorêx, do thou pursue Alath,' and fasten it round his neck,
I at once retire...1"
1. There must here be a lacuna in the text.
93. The twenty-third said: "I am called Nefthada. I cause
the reins to ache, and I bring about dysury. If any one write
on a plate of tin the words: 'Iathôth, Uruêl, Nephthada,'
and fasten it round the loins, I at once retreat."
94. The twenty-fourth said: "I am called Akton. I cause ribs
and lumbic muscles to ache. If one engrave on copper material,
taken from a ship which has missed its anchorage, this: 'Marmaraôth,
Sabaôth, pursue Akton,' and fasten it round the loin, I
at once retreat."
95. The twenty-fifth said: "I am called Anatreth, and I rend
burnings and fevers into the entrails. But if I hear: 'Arara,
Charara,' instantly do I retreat."
96. The twenty-sixth said: "I am called Enenuth. I steal
away men's minds, and change their hearts, and make a man toothless
(?). If one write: 'Allazoôl, pursue Enenuth,' and tie the
paper round him, I at once retreat."
97. The twenty-seventh said: "I am called Phêth. I
make men consumptive and cause hemorrhagia. ,If one exorcise me
in wine, sweet-smelling and unmixed by the eleventh aeon1,
and say: 'I exorcise thee by the eleventh aeon to stop, I demand,
Phêth (Axiôphêth),' then give it to the patient
to drink, and I at once retreat."
1. A Gnostic reference. Just above "eleven
fathers" were mentioned.
98. The twenty-eighth said: "I am called Harpax, and I send
sleeplessness on men. If one write 'Kokphnêdismos,' and
bind it round the temples, I at once retire."
99. The twenty-ninth said: "I am called Anostêr. I
engender uterine mania and pains in the bladder. If one powder
into pure oil three seeds of laurel and smear it on, saying: 'I
exorcise thee, Anostêr. Stop by Marmaraô,' at once
100. The thirtieth said: "I am called Alleborith. If in eating
fish one has swallowed a bone, then he must take a bone from the
fish and cough, and at once I retreat."
101. The thirty-first said: "I am called Hephesimireth, and
cause lingering disease. If you throw salt, rubbed in the hand,
into oil and smear it on the patient, saying: 'Seraphim, Cherubim,
help me!' I at once retire."
102. The thirty-second said: "I am called Ichthion. I paralyze
muscles and contuse them. If I hear 'Adonaêth, help!' I
at once retire."
103. The thirty-third said: "I am called Agchoniôn.
I lie among swaddling-clothes and in the precipice. And if any
one write on fig-leaves 'Lycurgos,' taking away one letter at
a time, and write it, reversing the letters, I retire at once.
'Lycurgos, ycurgos, kurgos, yrgos, gos, os1.'"
1. botrydón, for which Bornemann conjectures
boystrofydón. There is a parallel in a magic papyrus
edited by Dieterich (Abraxas, p. 185).
104. The thirty-fourth said: "I am called Autothith. I cause
grudges and fighting. Therefore I am frustrated by Alpha and Omega,
if written down."
105. The thirty-fifth said: "I am called Phthenoth. I cast
evil eye on every man. Therefore, the eye much-suffering, if it
be drawn. frustrates me."
106. The thirty-sixth said: "I am called Bianakith. I have
a grudge against the body. I lay waste houses, I cause flesh to
decay, and all else that is similar. If a man write on the front-door
of his house: 'Mêltô, Ardu, Anaath,' I flee from that
107. And I Solomon, when I heard this, glorified the God of heaven
and earth. And I commanded them to fetch water in the Temple of
God. And I furthermore prayed to the Lord God to cause the demons
without, that hamper humanity, to be bound and made to approach
the Temple of God. Some of these demons I condemned to do the
heavy work of the construction of the Temple of God. Others I
shut up in prisons. Others I ordered to wrestle with fire in (the
making of) gold and silver, sitting down by lead and spoon. And
to make ready places for the other demons in which they should
108. And I Solomon had much quiet in all the earth, and spent
my life in profound peace, honoured by all men and by all under
heaven. And I built the entire Temple of the Lord God. And my
kingdom was prosperous, and my army was with me. And for the rest
the city of Jerusalem had repose, rejoicing and delighted.
And all the kings of the earth came to me from the ends of the earth
to behold the Temple which I builded to the Lord God. And having
heard of the wisdom given to me, they did homage to me in the
Temple, bringing gold and silver and precious stones, many and
divers, and bronze, and iron, and lead, and cedar logs. And woods
decay not they brought me, for the equipment of the Temple of
109. And among them also the queen of the South, being a witch,
came in great concern and bowed low before me to the earth. And
having heard my wisdom, she glorified the God of Israel, and she
made formal trial of all my wisdom, of all love in which I instructed
her, according to the wisdom imparted to me. And all the sons
of Israel glorified God.
110. And behold, in those days one of the workmen, of ripe old
age, threw himself down before me, and said: "King Solomon,
pity me, because I am old." So I bade him stand up, and said:
"Tell me, old man, all you will." And he answered: "I
beseech you king, I have an only-born son, and he insults and
beats me openly, and plucks out the hair of my head, and threatens
me with a painful death. Therefore I beseech you avenge me.
111. And I Solomon, on hearing this, felt compunction as I looked
at his old age; and I bade the child be brought to me. And when
he was brought I questioned him whether it were true. And the
youth said: "I was not so filled with madness as to strike
my father with my hand. Be kind to me, O king. For I have not
dared to commit such impiety, poor wretch that I am." But
I Solomon on hearing this from the youth, exhorted the old man
to reflect on the matter, and accept his son's apology. However,
he would not, but said he would rather let him die. And as the
old man would not yield, I was about to pronounce sentence on
the youth, when I saw Ornias the demon laughing. I was very angry
at the demon's laughing in my presence; and I ordered my men to
remove the other parties, and bring forward Ornias before my tribunal.
And when he was brought before me, I said to him: "Accursed
one, why didst thou look at me and laugh?" And the demon
answered: "Prithee, king, it was not because of thee I laughed,
but because of this ill-starred old man and the wretched youth,
his son. For after three days his son will die untimely; and lo,
the old man desires to foully make away with him."
112. But I Solomon, having heard this, said to the demon: "Is
that true that thou speakest?" And he answered: "It
is true; O king." And I, on hearing that, bade them remove
the demon, and that they should again bring before me the old
man with his son. I bade them
make friends with one another again,
and I supplied them with food. And then I told the old man after
three days to bring his son again to me here; "and,"
said I, "I will attend to him." And they saluted me,
and went their way.
113. And when they were gone I ordered Ornias to be brought forward,
and said to him: "Tell me how you know this;" and he
answered: "We demons ascend into the firmament of heaven,
and fly about among the stars. And we hear the sentences which
go forth upon the souls of men, and forthwith we come, and whether
by force of influence, or by fire, or by sword, or by some accident,
we veil our act of destruction; and if a man does not die by some
untimely disaster or by violence, then we demons transform ourselves
in such a way as to appear to men and be worshipped in our human
114. I therefore, having heard this, glorified the Lord God, and
again I questioned the demon, saying: "Tell me how ye can
ascend into heaven, being demons, and amidst the stars and holy
angels intermingle." And he answered: "Just as things
are fulfilled in heaven, so also on earth (are fulfilled) the
types1 of all of them. For there are principalities, authorities,
world-rulers2, and we demons fly about in the air; and we hear
the voices of the heavenly beings, and survey all the powers.
And as having no ground (basis) on which to alight and rest, we
lose strength and fall off like leaves from trees. And men seeing
us imagine that the stars are falling from heaven. But it is not
really so, O king; but we fall because of our weakness, and because
we have nowhere anything to lay hold of; and so we fall down like
lightnings3 in the depth of night and suddenly. And we set
cities in flames and fire the fields. For the stars have firm
foundations in the heavens like the sun and the moon."
1. Cp. Heb. viii. 5.
2. Cp. Rom. viii. 38.
3. Luke x. 18: "I beheld Satan as lightning
fall from heaven." June 13.
115. And I Solomon, having heard this, ordered the demon to be
guarded for five days. And after the five days I recalled the
old man, and was about to question him. But he came to me in grief
and with black face. And I said to him: "Tell me, old man,
where is thy son? And what means this garb?" And he answered:
"Lo, I am become childless, and sit by my son's grave in
despair. For it is already two days that he is dead." But
I Solomon, on hearing that, and knowing that the demon Ornias
had told me the truth, glorified the God of Israel.
116. And the queen of the South saw all this, and marvelled,
glorifying the God of Israel; and she beheld the Temple of the Lord being
builded. And she gave a siklos1 of gold and one hundred myriads
of silver and choice bronze, and she went into the Temple. And
(she beheld) the altar of incense and the brazen supports of this
altar, and the gems of the lamps flashing forth of different colours,
and of the lamp-stand of stone, and of emerald, and hyacinth,
and sapphire; and she beheld the vessels of gold, and silver,
and bronze, and wood, and the folds of skins dyed red with madder.
And she saw the bases of the pillars of the Temple of the Lord.
All were of one gold ...2 apart from the demons whom I condemned
to labour. And there was peace in the circle of my kingdom and
over all the earth.
1. A shekel. Philo has the form síklos,
i. 468. síglos is the usual spelling in the LXX.
2. There seems to be here a lacuna in the MS.
117. And it came to pass, which I was in my kingdom, the King
of the Arabians, Adares, sent me a letter, and the writing of
the letter was written as follows: --
"To King Solomon, all hail! Lo, we have heard, and it hath
been heard unto all the ends of the earth, concerning the wisdom
vouchsafed in thee, and that thou art a man merciful from the
Lord. And understanding hath been granted thee over all the spirits
of the air, and on earth, and under the earth. Now, forasmuch
as there is present in the land of Arabia a spirit of the following
kind: at early dawn there begins to blow a certain wind until
the third hour. And its blast is harsh and terrible, and it slays
man and beast. And no spirit can live upon earth against this
demon. I pray thee then, forasmuch as the spirit is a wind, contrive
something according to the wisdom given in thee by the Lord thy
God, and deign to send a man able to capture it. And behold, King
Solomon, I and my people and all my land will serve thee unto
death. And all Arabia shall be at peace with thee, if thou wilt
perform this act of righteousness for us. Wherefore we pray thee,
contemn not our humble prayer, and suffer not to be utterly brought
to naught the eparchy subordinated to thy authority. Because we
are suppliants, both I and my people and all my land. Farewell
to my Lord. All health!"
118. And I Solomon read this epistle; and I folded it up and gave
it to my people, and said to them: "After seven days shalt
thou remind me of this epistle. And Jerusalem was built, and the
Temple was being completed. And there was a stone1, the end stone
of the corner lying there, great, chosen out, one which
I desired lay in the head of the corner of the completion of the
Temple. And all the workmen, and all the demons helping them came
to the same place to bring up the stone and lay it on the pinnacle
of the holy Temple, and were not strong enough to stir it, and
lay it upon the corner allotted to it. For that stone was exceedingly
great and useful for the corner of the Temple."
1. Cp. I Pet. ii. 6, 7, who combines in the same
way Ps. cxviii. 22 and Isa. xxviii. 16. Cp. Matt. xxi. 42, Mark
xii, 10, Luke xx, 17.
119. And after seven days, being reminded of the epistle of Adares,
King of Arabia, I called my servant and said to him: "Order
thy camel and take for thyself a leather flask, and take also
this seal. And go away into Arabia to the place in which the evil
spirit blows; and there take the flask, and the signet-ring in
front of the mouth of the flask, and (hold them) towards the blast
of the spirit. And when the flask is blown out, thou wilt understand
that the demon is (in it). Then hastily tie up the mouth of to
flask, and seal it securely with the seal-ring, and lay it carefully
on the camel and bring it me hither. And if on the way it offer
thee gold or silver or treasure in return for letting it go, see
that thou be not persuaded. But arrange without using oath to
release it. And then if it point out to the places where are gold
or silver, mark the places and seal them with this seal. And bring
the demon to me. And now depart, and fare thee well."
120. Then the youth did as was bidden him. And he ordered his
camel, and laid on it a flask, and set off into Arabia. And the
men of that region would not believe that he would be able to
catch the evil spirit. And when it was dawn, the servant stood
before the spirit's blast, and laid the flask on the ground, and
the finger-ring on the mouth of the flask. And the demon blew
through the middle of the finger-ring into the mouth of the flask,
and going in blew out the flask. But the man promptly stood up
to it and drew tight with his hand the mouth of the flask, in
the name of the Lord God of Sabaôth. And the demon remained
within the flask. And after that the youth remained in that land
three days to make trial. And the spirit no longer blew against
that city. And all the Arabs knew that he had safely shut in the
121. Then the youth fastened the flask on the camel, and the Arabs
sent him forth on his way with much honour and precious gifts,
praising and magnifying the God of Israel. But the youth brought
in the bag and laid it in the middle of the Temple. And on the
next day, I King Solomon, went into the Temple of God and sat
in deep distress about the stone of the end of the corner. And when
I entered the Temple, the flask stood up and walked around
some seven steps and then fell on its mouth and did homage to
me. And I marvelled that even along with the bottle the demon
still had power and could walk about; and I commanded it to stand
up. And the flask stood up, and stood on its feet all blown out.
And I questioned him, saying: "Tell me, who art thou?"
And the spirit within said: "I am the demon called Ephippas,
that is in Arabia." And I said to him: "Is this thy
name?" And he answered: "Yes; wheresoever I will, I
alight and set fire and do to death."
122. And I said to him: "By what angel art thou frustrated?"
And he answered: "By the only-ruling God, that hath authority
over me even to be heard. He that is to be born of a virgin and
crucified by the Jews on a cross. Whom the angels and archangels
worship. He doth frustrate me, and enfeeble me of my great strength,
which has been given me by my father the devil." And I said
to him: "What canst thou do?'' And he answered: ''I am able
to remove1 mountains, to overthrow the oaths of kings. I wither
trees and make their leaves to fall off." And I said to him:
"Canst thou raise this stone, and lay it for the beginning
of this corner which exists in the fair plan of the Temple2?''
And he said: "Not only raise this, O king; but also, with
the help of the demon who presides over the Red Sea, I will bring
up the pillar of air3, and will stand it where thou wilt in
1. Cp. the faith which removes mountains.
2. Bornemann suggests that the gate of the Temple
called Beautiful (Acts iii. 2, 10) is referred to.
3. I conjecture the sense.
123. Saying this, I laid stress on him, and the flask became as
if depleted of air. And I placed it under the stone, and (the
spirit) girded himself up, and lifted it up top of the flask.
And the flask went up the steps, carrying the stone, and laid
it down at the end of the entrance of the Temple. And I Solomon,
beholding the stone raised aloft and placed on a foundation, said:
"Truly the Scripture is fulfilled, which says: 'The stone
which the builders rejected on trial, that same is become the
head of the corner.' For this it is not mine to grant, but God's,
that the demon should be strong enough to lift up so great a stone
and deposit it in the place I wished."
124. And Ephippas led the demon of the Red Sea with the column.
And they both took the column and raised it aloft from the earth.
And I outwitted these two spirits, so that they could not shake
the entire earth in a moment of time. And then I sealed round with my
ring on this side and that, and said: "Watch."
And the spirits have remained upholding it until this day, for
proof of the wisdom vouchsafed to me. And there the pillar was
hanging of enormous size, in mid air, supported by the winds.
And thus the spirits appeared underneath, like air, supporting
it. And if one looks fixedly, the pillar is a little oblique,
being supported by the spirits; and it is so to day.
125. And I Solomon questioned the other spirit which came up with
the pillar from the depth of the Red Sea. And I said to him: "Who
art thou, and what calls thee? And what is thy business? For I
hear many things about thee.'' And the demon answered: "I,
O King Solomon, am called Abezithibod. I am a descendant of the
archangel. Once as I sat in the first heaven, of which the name
is Ameleouth -- I then am a fierce spirit and winged, and with
a single wing, plotting against every spirit under heaven. I was
present when Moses went in before Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and
I hardened his heart. I am he whom Iannes and Iambres invoked
homing1 with Moses in Egypt. I am he who fought against Moses
2 with wonders with signs."
1. oíkoyxúmenoi in the MS.,
a vox nihili. If we had the apocryph of Iannes and Iambres
we might understand the reference.
2. 2 Tim. iii. 8.
126. I said therefore to him: "How wast thou found in the
Red Sea?" And he answered: "In the exodus of the sons
of Israel I hardened the heart of Pharaoh. And I excited his heart
and that of his ministers. And I caused them to pursue after the
children of Israel. And Pharaoh followed with (me) and all the
Egyptians. Then I was present there, and we followed together.
And we all came up upon the Red Sea. And it came to pass when
the children of Israel had crossed over, the water returned and
hid all the host of the Egyptians and all their might. And I remained
in the sea, being kept under this pillar. But when Ephippas came,
being sent by thee, shut up in the vessel of a flask, he fetched
me up to thee."
127. I, therefore, Solomon, having heard this, glorified God and
adjured the demons not to disobey me, but to remain supporting
the pillar. And they both sware, saying: "The Lord thy God
liveth, we will not let go this pillar until the world's end.
But on whatever day this stone fall, then shall be the end of
1. This legend of the heavy cornerstone and of the
spirits supporting a column in the Temple reappears in the Georgian
Acts of Nouna in the fourth century. There it is a huge wooden
column that is lifted by spirit-agency, when the king and workmen
had failed to move it into place. The spirits support it in the
air before letting it sink into its place. These Acts will shortly
appear in an English translation by Miss Wardrop in the forthcoming
number of the Studie Biblica, Clarendon Press, 1898.
128. And I Solomon glorified God, and adorned the Temple of the
Lord with all fair-seeming. And I was glad in spirit in my kingdom,
and there was peace in my days. And I took wives of my own from
every land, who were numberless. And I marched against the Jebusaeans,
and there I saw Jebusaean, daughter of a man: and fell violently
in love with her, and desired to take her to wife along with my
other wives. And I said to their priests: "Give me the Sonmanites
(i.e. Shunammite) to wife1." But the priests of Moloch
said to me: "If thou lovest this maiden, go in and worship
our gods, the great god Raphan and the god called Moloch."
I therefore was in fear of the glory of God, and did not follow
to worship. And I said to them: "I will not worship a strange
god. What is this proposal, that ye compel me to do so much?"
But they said: ". . . . .2 by our fathers."
1. Song of Sol. vi. 12.
2. utheìs (sic) stands in the MS.;
perhaps taîs theaîs should be read.
129. And when I answered that I would on no account worship strange
gods, they told the maiden not to sleep with me until I complied
and sacrificed to the gods. I then was moved, but crafty Eros
brought and laid by her for me five grasshoppers, saying: "Take
these grasshoppers, and crush them together in the name of the
god Moloch; and then will I sleep with you." And this I actually
did. And at once the Spirit of God departed from me, and I became
weak as well as foolish in my words. And after that I was obliged
by her to build a temple of idols to Baal1, and to Rapha, and
to Moloch, and to the other idols.
1. Fem. So Rom. xi. 4.
130. I then, wretch that I am, followed her advice, and the glory
of God quite departed from me; and my spirit was darkened, and
I became the sport of idols and demons. Wherefore I wrote out
this Testament, that ye who get possession of it may pity,
and attend to the last things1, and not to the first. So that
ye may find grace for ever and ever. Amen.
1. Cp. Rev. ii. 19.